A Brief Account of a Pioneer Preacher by Brian Evans

A Brief Account of a Pioneer Preacher

Introduction

Since 2004 I’ve been serving in an independent church called “Bigelow Church”. Often, when I’m asked where I serve and I reply, “Bigelow Church”, I receive a strange look. To most, the name really doesn’t say a whole about who we are, however, there is such a rich history associated with the name, I feel the name is a perfect fit.

The current building where we assemble is very old, being erected in 1858. The congregation was formed in 1803, and their first building was dedicated and named after a circuit riding preacher who served in Ohio many years ago. Originally, the church was called Bigelow Methodist Episcopal Church. As impressive as the history of the church is, this paper is not about the history of church buildings but a history of a man whose passion was for His Lord, a man who loved Jesus—Russel Bigelow.

As I studied the history of Russel Bigelow I was in awe of how the Lord utilized a man who by the world’s standards was in no way impressive. In fact, in many of the eyewitness accounts, he was portrayed as just the opposite. This is an account of an ordinary preacher and his passion for his Lord.

Birth and Early Life

            Russel Bigelow was born in Chesterfield, New Hampshire, February 24, 1793. He was the third child born to his father Russell Sr. (Russell with two L’s) and mother Lucy Bigelow. He was the eldest son. Russel’s father had a religious education and so taught his children the Scriptures from a very early age. It is believed his father for a time was engaged in irreligious practices and a sort of drifting away from Christianity, but still remained consistent in his requirement of young Russel’s Christian studies.[1] The Lord was very gracious to this family and kept young Russel in the realm of Christian teaching and study and in the grip of His grace.

            Young Bigelow’s family moved from Chesterfield, New Hampshire in 1798 to Pittsford, Vermont. Staying in Pittsford, Vermont for about a year, the Bigelows then moved further north in Vermont, close to the Canadian border. It was here, in the city of Huntsborough, that the family joined the Methodist Episcopal Church.[2] Another move would take the family further north into the Province of Lower Canada. And still yet another move would take Bigelow and his parents south to Worthington, Ohio in 1812.[3] It was from here Russel would begin his ministry in Ohio and Northern Kentucky.

Conversion

            It was while in Canada that young Russel Bigelow began to be brought to life by the Holy Spirit. Some reports tell of Russel’s conversion at age nine. One historian writes, “At the age of nine he was awakened and made a subject of converting grace under the preaching of the Methodist ministry, though he made no profession of religion at that time.”[4]

The reports of Bigelow’s conversion vary somewhat. I tend to believe that the Holy Spirit began to work in young Bigelow’s life at age nine but he was actually converted a few years later at age thirteen. Dr. John Marshall Barker writes in his account of Russel Bigelow that, “Russel Bigelow was born in Chesterfield, New Hampshire, February 24, 1793. He was converted, and joined the Methodist Church in his thirteenth year.”[5]

It is also reported that in the area of Lower Canada there was a very serious lack of gospel ministers. Religious meetings were seldom and this began to take its toll on Bigelow’s spiritual life. For four years he experienced a condition of what the reporter called “backsliding”. Through the prayers of his sister and the grace of God, young Russel was turned back to the seriousness of the Christian life. From this point on the grace of God would preserve and keep Bigelow. He would never again turn back, but would always move forward in passionate service to His Lord and Savior.

Appearance and Character

I wanted to include a section that dealt with Bigelow’s appearance, because God does not need an attractive person to work through. All that the Lord needs is one who is dedicated and in love with Him.

Russel Bigelow was born into poverty. He did not have an opportunity of a formal minister’s education. However, what he lacked in societal opportunities, he made up for by his passion and drive to be faithful to his Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. One description explains Bigelow’s status in society and physical appearance saying, “He eschewed all extravagance in dress, all luxuries at table, and all modern fashionable barbarisms in his intercourse with society. In the social circle he was affable, gentle, and considerate. To the poorest and most obscure he was ever accessible. All his utterances were seasoned with salt of kindness, wisdom and piety, administering grace to the hearer. In his society you grew wiser, broader, better.”[6]

 

The eyewitness accounts of Russel Bigelow that I have read all speak in very similar ways concerning his appearance. While he was extremely pious in spirit, he was also very worn and frail from hard days on horseback. J. L. Grover’s, account which is typical of others, has this to say,

His appearance was by no means prepossessing. He was below the medium height, quite slender, with arms and limbs disproportionately long and very loosely attached to his body. His clothing was of generally course material, carelessly made, and negligently worn. His long auburn locks hung profusely over his forehead; but under those heavy locks was a capacious head remarkably deep from front to ear, with a full development of intellectual organs; and an eye that sparkled and blazed, when he entered fully into the discussion of his subject. When walking he inclined forward, and made long strides, somewhat irregular in length. When on horseback, his bridle arm was elevated so as to form almost a right angle with his shoulders, and in his right hand he carried a whip, that was constantly in motion, while his heels would strike the sides of his horse at about every step. Whether riding or walking, he evidenced the pressure of some great matter upon his mind calling for energy and haste. In speaking there was a noticeable peculiarity—one side of his mouth was almost entirely closed. A good sister, hearing him on a certain occasion, remarked, that if he could preach so wonderfully out of one side of his mouth, it would be difficult to imagine what the sermon would be if both sides were open at once.[7]   

 

Another account, which remains unidentified, is written of a conversation between two cousins attending a camp meeting that included Russel Bigelow. The conversation begins,

Is it possible that that indifferent looking little fellow is the great Mr. Bigelow?” They go on, “Yes, sir, that is Mr. Bigelow,” answered she, and I raised my head in astonishment, and gazed at him again; but only to satisfy myself that he was one of the most uninteresting men I had ever seen in the sacred desk. He was about five feet seven or eight inches in height: his person thin and emaciated: his chest depressed; and his whole form inclined forward like a man of seventy. His dress was plain and almost shabby. His head was not large, but well formed, with a high prominent forehead: his face was long, narrow and irregular. The right side of which seemed so depressed or contracted by some accident, as to subject him to inconvenience in speaking: his mouth appeared to have been drawn toward the right side of his face, by reason of contraction to that side, and although large enough remained almost closed to the right side, while the left side was entirely distended in speaking: his eye like a sick man’s looked weary and melancholy: his voice, his person, his eye, his gestures, all combined to convey the idea of a sinking invalid.[8]

 

Such was the man the Lord used in a mighty way to point many to Christ.

Many accounts of Bigelow’s character are almost identical. He was an extraordinary man, and his merits were never fully appreciated even by the Church. It has been reported that he was accustomed to reading the Bible cover to cover while on his knees. He was known for his dedication and perseverance. Many report of his remarkable piety.[9] Those who met Russel Bigelow were so moved by his compassion and love for his Lord that their lives were changed by their being in his presence.

Call to Ministry

            At age fifteen Russel Bigelow experienced the call of God to preach the Word. He took this call very seriously, even at such a young age. He refused to keep company with children his age, instead spent his time studying, praying, and practicing other serious religious duties. It is reported, “He continued to grow in grace, avoided the company of the thoughtless and gay, sought the society of the pious, and was derisively called by his young acquaintances the Deacon, or the old Deacon.

            While many encouraged Russel to begin preaching he was rather cautious in moving into that endeavor too quickly. He delayed, afraid of “running too fast.” However, in 1812, Bigelow now about nineteen, moved to Worthington, Ohio where he was licensed to “exhort”. The “Deacon” had now become a preacher.  

            It was at this early age that Bigelow began to preach. Unexpected trials and embarrassments, however, awaited him in the pulpit under pressure to preach because of his deep devotion and being rather timid because of his lack of formal training, young Bigelow contemplated giving up preaching altogether. By the grace of God he remained faithful and the Lord began to cause him, over time, to have more confidence behind the sacred desk. He remained a preacher until his death.

Ministry Events

Now equipped and a couple of years older, Bigelow was admitted on a trial basis in the Ohio Conference, September 8, 1814, and appointed to Hinkstone Circuit, Kentucky. He continued to fill important appointments as a preacher and presiding elder. He then began his first circuit ride as an itinerant preacher.

In October, 1815, Kentucky became his first official circuit, preaching in many churches in Northern Kentucky and Southern Ohio. Edward Thomson reports,

His natural timidity, his youthful appearance, his low stature, his awkward manners, his unprepossessing face, and his slovenly dress, gave his congregations but poor promise of edification and instruction. Many a proud man sneered, and many a pious one prayed, as he entered the church with his saddle bags in one hand and hat in the other, and bashfully hid himself in the pulpit. It was soon apparent that he was humble and devoted; and as he progressed in his discourse, the wicked lost their contempt, and the good their mortification; the sluggish were aroused and the intelligent were amazed; arrows of conviction flew thick and fast; sinners were slain on the right and left; the atoning Lamb was lifted up, and the dead were made alive by His blood.[10]

 

In 1815, his next assignment came which was to serve the congregations on the Miami Circuit. After having been ordained deacon in 1816, he was appointed to the Lawrenceburg Circuit. It was on this circuit he developed a deep and long lasting friendship with Allen Willey.

It was also in 1816 that Russel Bigelow married Margaret Irwin. Russel and Margaret had seven children who all survived his death. In his journal, Bigelow wrote these words concerning his marriage to Margaret, “I think it would have been better had I remained single a few years longer.” No doubt these words came from a worn and weary preacher who was seldom home.[11]

The next year, 1817, Bigelow was appointed to the Oxford Circuit. On this circuit he encountered many hardships, including almost drowning. The details of this near death experience are not given.

It was in 1818, Bigelow was ordained elder and reappointed to the Oxford Circuit. For the next twenty years he rode various circuits in the State of Ohio. The list includes the Mad River, Columbus, White Water, Cincinnati, and Union Circuits.  

Missionary to the Wyandot Indians

            In 1827, Russel Bigelow was sent to the Methodist Mission at Sandusky, Ohio. Here he began preaching the Gospel to the Wyandot Indians. He not only preached but was also the superintendent of the farm, mission school and was made the presiding bishop over the area. In Sandusky among the Wyandot Indians, he saw great success. He preached and taught the Wyandots through an interpreter. He commented that while he rather loved to preach, he disliked the use of an interpreter. He shares the sentiments, no doubt, of many a missionary.

            The fact was that by this time Bigelow had great fame in Ohio as a powerful pulpit presence. So powerful were his sermons that thousands would turn out to hear “The Greatest Pulpit Orator in the West”. As his fame spread so did the jealousy among other preachers and among the leaders over the Methodist Episcopal Church in Ohio. The reports go that Russel Bigelow was sent away to the Indians because of the jealousy of others. One could not go anywhere in Ohio without hearing the name of Russel Bigelow. In one Ohio Archaeology and Historical Society Publication it is reported, “Russel Bigelow had in settlements and larger towns of Ohio won the distinguished honor of being the greatest pulpit orator of the West, and some ministers, it is said, were jealous of him, and had a pliant bishop send him to the Wyandots.” However, what men meant for evil, God meant for good because the Wyandot Indians now would have the gospel preached to them from the greatest pulpit orator in the West.[12]  Years later it was said of Bigelow’s time with the Indians that now, “The Lord had a people among the Wyandots.”[13]

            A very interesting side note to Bigelow’s time with the Indians was the events of Russel Bigelow’s eldest daughter Lucy. Lucy soon fell in love with John McIntyre Armstrong “White Star”, a Wyandot Indian. “Armstrong was the attorney for the Wyandots. The tribe had great confidence in his legal ability and honesty. He was a member of their council, and wrote their last constitution.

             A poem was written about “White Star” and Lucy. Some of the lines are as follows:

“They met once again at her cottage door,

He woed and won and took her to his home,

This passing fair and most beauteous bride”

…………………

“Hard by a grove on a verge of verdant lawn,

Their wildwood cabin stood where they could see

The Sandusky meandering through the vale.”

            John M’cIntyre Armstrong died on his way to Washington, D.C. 1852 to represent his people. Those who knew “White Star” spoke very highly of him. Lucy went on to become the Secretary of the W. F. Missionary Society and Aid Society and W. C. T. U. of Kansas City. Lucy died in 1892 at age seventy-two.

Pulpit Ministry

It is at this point I want to include a few first hand accounts of the power of God that accompanied Bigelow’s sermons and of the hundreds if not thousands whose lives were transformed through the grace of God.

The Reverend James B. Finley had this to say when a very skeptical acquaintance first encountered Bigelow in the pulpit. So skeptical was Finley’s friend that he writes, “This man had imbibed skeptical sentiments, which he often inculcated with terrific energy. He rarely went to the house of God, and when he did, I supposed he might as well stay at home; for I should have thought it easy to melt a rock with a fagot, as to subdue his heart by the ‘foolishness of preaching’.” Finley goes on to recount the event,

“One Saturday evening he came into our office with a peculiar expression of countenance—the tear started from his eye as he said, ‘I have been to meeting, and by the grace of God I will continue on as long as it lasts. Come, young gentlemen, come and hear Bigelow. He will show you the world, the human heart, and the Bible, and the cross in such light as you have never before seen them.”[14]

The Reverend J. W. White has a very striking account of his impressions of Bigelow’s pulpit ministry. White writes,

I saw, for the first time, this truly great man, at a camp meeting near Granville, Licking County, Ohio, in the fall of 1833. I had gone, a youth, to that meeting to hear the man whose fame as a logician and orator had preceded him, and awoke in all the region large expectations. It was on the Sabbath. As I sat there among the assembled thousands, I set myself to work to select from among the many seated in the preacher’s stand the great man. First, there was Hamlin, with dark classic face and manly form, looking a very Jupiter. Next was Chase, with his burly head, set squarely on broad shoulders, and a face of flame. On the right was Fenande Sonal, wiry, and looking as though he was about to send greetings to the whole human race. Next, came Eddy, with a well kept presence of two hundred pounds, and the eye of an eagle. As a central figure sat Gilruth, a giant among his brethren, and looking another Sampson. So, as I was in search of greatness, I finally settled on Gilruth the great man. At that point the horn blew as a signal for the service, and there came up from the preacher’s tent a man bearing an open Bible and hymn book. He was small in stature, slight in build, with a well rounded head, covered with a thin suit of light hair, which fell down in front shading a broad forehead. His piercing gray eyes were hid away back of a pair of heavy brows, his cheek bones were high, nose prominent, lips thin, chin projecting, and a large mouth, which drooped at the right corner. His neck was long, slim, and threaded with a network of blue veins. His limbs were long for his body, and his motions were rapid and nervous. His whole appearance indicated weariness and mental conflict. On his face were deep lines of thought and care. He seemed as one whose life was a deep seated sorrow. Though he had deeply interested me, I confess to a disappointment when he rose to occupy the hour. I had come to hear Bigelow. He read his hymn with seeming embarrassment and hesitation, but when he kneeled in prayer he seemed alone with God, and talking with him face to face of the interests and destinies of the assembly before him. He seemed to gather them in the arms of petition, bear them to the mercy seat, and there, in the name and for the sake of Jesus, plead for their salvation, as one pleading for his life. As he supplicated his faith reached up to the source of power and took hold on Omnipotence, the heavens bowed, and the Divine presence and glory overshadowed the assembly. He prevailed with God as did Jacob![15]

 

White goes on, “He announced his theme: ‘The departing of the Scepter from Judah, the coming of Shiloh, and the gathering of the people to him.’” The report continues,

The argument was logical, clear, and conclusive. The logician had succeeded. He and his hearers were as one. The Scepter had departed and Shiloh had come. But it was not until Shiloh had set up his spiritual kingdom and the gathering of the people had begun, that the great orator exhibited all his power. Here the logician gave way to rhetorician, who unrolled as a map at our feet the past eighteen hundred years, and showed it thickly dotted with triumphs of Divine grace. Then he came forward into the present, marshaled the embattled hosts of the redeemed, and passed them in a grand review before us. Sweeping forward into a more glorious future, he became prophetic, overwhelming. We saw Ethiopia rising up from he degradation, and stretching supplicant hands to God, while the islands of the sea sat hopefully waiting for his law. Now came one after another of the kingdoms of the world, wheeling into line, and acknowledging his mighty gathering hand, that they might become the kingdoms of our Lord and His Christ. Men and Women rose to their feet and leaned forward to catch his grand utterances. Some fell on their knees and commenced to pray. Many shouted aloud. Higher and higher, and still higher rose the orator, until he seemed ‘mid earth and heaven, catching new revelations of redeeming mercy, and passing them down to earth and us! There he stood, that pale feeble man, for two hours, his eyes flashing, his face all aglow, his voice like a trumpet, his sentencing lengthening, his enunciation more and more clear and emphatic, holding the eye, ear, intellect and hearts of the assembly to his theme and sweeping all as the tempest moves the mighty forest. Few the heart chords left unswept by his masterly hand. Many were that thrilled to his touch, and sent back responsive notes. When he sunk back to his seat, panting and exhausted. Once again he cast his eye over his audience they were bathed in tears. The speaker was lost to sight—they saw only Shiloh. I had heard Lyman Beecher, Dr. Channing, Daniel Webster, and Henry Warren, All great men, but never had I seen an audience so deeply moved. Since the delivery of that sermon forty-five years have swept by. I was young then, now I am aged, feeble and gray, but its mighty impress is still on my heart.[16]

 

Bigelow being stationed in Columbus was assigned to J. M’D.Matthews in Chillicothe, Ohio. I have been amazed at just how many places Bigelow’s ministry touched that I have grown to love. Not only did his ministry bring him to Southern Ohio in many of the places I’m familiar with such as Portsmouth and the extended area, but also Chillicothe, Ohio.

Matthews recounts that he had anticipated great difficulties in Chillicothe because of the membership being divided into two parties. He reports that Bigelow had come to assist him in the first quarterly meetings. He reports that the Lord blessed with a revival of religion for nearly the first year. Matthews believed that this move of God would soon end. He wrote that it probably would have ended were it not for the hand of God on Russel Bigelow. Prior to Bigelow being assigned to Matthews, he had heard him preach on occasion but had scarcely heard anyone preach like this man now. Matthews noted that each year that passed Bigelow seemed to surpass himself as the Lord blessed his ministry. Matthew’s writes, “He preached with such energy and power, that the whole membership of the church were roused to new zeal and earnestness, and the impression did not subside during the year. I have heard M’Kendree, George, Roberts, Bascom, Durbin, Simpson, and many others, preach great and powerful sermons, but never did I hear preaching attended with such Divine power as Bigelow’s.” 

            Reverend J. L. Grover reports that up until Bigelow’s death he preached with great power. He writes of Bigelow’s preaching, “During his stay in Xenia he preached one sermon. Never till then had I the slightest conception of his intellectual strength—the power of his logic—the beauty and variety of his imagery, or the overwhelming force of his eloquence. It was an occasion never to be forgotten. His sermon was in 1st Peter, 1st chapter, 3rd and 4th verses…I cannot give the general arrangement of the sermon. It contained an elaborate argument on the doctrine of the eternal Sonship of Christ. I had read Watson and Clarke, and heard the doctrine discussed from the pulpit frequently, but never with such strength of argument and clearness of conception presented on that occasion. He was perfect master of all arguments I had heard or read, and in addition, he presented proof and demonstrations to me entirely new.”[17] It seems that many people who heard Bigelow’s flow and logic in his messages had similar thoughts.

Prison Ministry

            With Bigelow’s health failing from the many miles under his belt, the Lord set him in the midst of prisoners. Bigelow was now going to stay put at least for a little while. In 1831 his health failed; but improving somewhat, in March, 1835, he was appointed chaplain to the Ohio State Prison, at Columbus. The work, however, proved too difficult for him considering his health. His health rapidly declined and he passed away in July.

The Reverend E. Thompson in his account of Bigelow writes, “After twenty years of toilsome service in the itinerancy, his health failing, he retired in hopes to spend the rest of his days on a small farm. From his retiracy he was called to the chaplaincy of the Ohio penitentiary, where preaching to the ‘spirits in prison’ with zeal, and sympathy, and power which characterized him in every other situation, he sank calmly and triumphantly into the arms of death.”[18]

Death

            It was said of Russel Bigelow that his brief life was a grand poem, his death a Christian heroic triumph. His sleep is that of the just. While living he was loved and honored, when dead, lamented and mourned, while to the few, the very few of his early associates who survived him, his memory is as a sweet perfume lingering around a broken vase.

            Bishop Thomson said of Bigelow, “As a preacher I have yet to hear his equal. Thousands of souls will rise up in judgment and call him blessed, and his name will ever be like precious ointment to the churches.”[19]

            One pastor recounted his time as a child with the great Russel Bigelow, He writes of the influence Bigelow had on his life, “Before the preacher left, he took me by the hand, and in a language suitable to my years, pointed me to the Savior, and obtained a solemn promise that I would try for God to live and die. I can never forget the hour, the scene, nor my vow. Whenever I think of it I weep, and while I write I weep. Should I ever get to heaven, I shall of angelic beings among the first look for the one who so kindly took a poor boy by the hand, and obtained a promise of reformation—I will not stop till I find Russel Bigelow.”[20]

            Russel Bigelow died in Columbus July, 1, 1835 worn out and ready for home.

Conclusion

The Lord uses the foolishness of preaching to confound the wise. He uses the unattractive, the plain, and the ordinary to display his glory. The people chose King Saul for his good looks and strong build, but God chose the shepherd boy, David to lead His people. Man always looks on the exterior to size up those God will probably use, but God looks past the exterior to the heart.

I was challenged greatly in my own ministry as I learned of Bigelow’s commitment, courage, perseverance, and piety. May the churches in our day be blessed with men such as Russel Bigelow, a simple pioneer preacher.

I confess that I am not a Methodist, I am a Reformed Baptist, however, as I put together this account of Russel Bigelow, my own heart was strangely warmed as I found myself in the Methodist camp meetings, in Methodist missions at the villages of the Wyandot Indians, and wrapped up in the sermons that this great Methodist pioneer preacher was so famous for delivering in open air. I often found my thoughts wandering from the paper I was supposed to be writing, to images of the pioneer trail and imagining what it would have been like to experience a mighty movement of God that Bigelow no doubt experienced. My prayer is that all denominations would be blessed by God with men like Russel Bigelow, men who love Jesus Christ and are willing to sacrifice everything for His glory. Bigelow has shown me that it’s far better to die young in passionate service to God than live to a ripe old age in mediocrity. While this paper focuses on Russel Bigelow, I want it to honor Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ is worthy of such service and devotion. May we not idolize Bigelow, but may his passion for Christ be a model for us.

 

 

 

Bibliography

 

 

Barker, John Marshal, History of Methodism (Cincinnati: Curts and Jennings Publishers, 1898)

 

Finley, James B., Sketches of Western Methodism (Cincinnati: Methodist Book Concern, 1854)

 

Grover, J. L., From a scrapbook belonging to the author containing an unidentified newspaper clipping.

 

Minutes of the Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church (New York: T. Mason and G. Lane Publishers 1840)

 

Russel Bigelow, The Pioneer Pulpit Orator (Ohio Archaeology and Historical Society)

 

Simpson, Matthew, Cyclopedia of Methodism (Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1880)

 

Sprague, William B., Annals of the American Pulpit (New York: Robert Carter and    Brothers Publishing, 1859)

 

Thomson, E., Russel Bigelow: A Lady Repository Report (Ladies’ Repository)

 

Whitlock, Love, and Crist, History of the Central Ohio Conference (Cincinnati: Methodist Book Concern, 1914)

 


[1] William B. Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit (New York: Robert Carter and Brothers Publishing, 1859), 540

[2] ibid

[3] Matthew Simpson, Cyclopedia of Methodism (Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1880) 106

[4] Ibid

[5] John Marshal Barker, History of Methodism (Cincinnati: Curts and Jennings Publishers, 1898) 159

[6] William B. Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit (New York: Robert Carter and Brothers Publishing, 1859) 541

[7] Minutes of the Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church (New York: T. Mason and G. Lane Publishers 1840) 404

[8] J. L. Grover, From a scrapbook belonging to the author containing an unidentified newspaper clipping.

[9] James B. Finley, Sketches of Western Methodism (Cincinnati: Methodist Book Concern, 1854) 411

[10] E. Thomson, Russel Bigelow: A Lady Repository Report (Ladies’ Repository)

[11] Ibid

 

[12] Russel Bigelow, The Pioneer Pulpit Orator (Ohio Archaeology and Historical Society) 187

[13] Whitlock, Love, and Crist, History of the Central Ohio Conference (Cincinnati: Methodist Book Concern, 1914) 91

[14] James B. Finley, Sketches of Western Methodism (Cincinnati: Methodist Book Concern, 1854) 415

[15] James B. Finley, Sketches of Western Methodism (Cincinnati: Methodist Book Concern, 1854)416

[16] J. L. Grover, From a scrapbook belonging to the author containing an unidentified newspaper clipping.

 

[17] J. L. Grover, From a scrapbook belonging to the author containing an unidentified newspaper clipping.

 

[18] E. Thomson, Russel Bigelow: A Lady Repository Report (Ladies’ Repository)

 

[19] Matthew Simpson, Cyclopedia of Methodism (Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts Publisher, 1880) 107

 

[20] J. L. Grover, From a scrapbook belonging to the author containing an unidentified newspaper clipping.

 

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